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Total Energy Line And Hydraulic Gradient Pdf Free

Total Energy Line And Hydraulic Gradient Pdf Free

total energy line and hydraulic gradient pdf free

 

Total Energy Line And Hydraulic Gradient Pdf Free >>> http://shurll.com/bt7rr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Energy Line And Hydraulic Gradient Pdf Free

 

Energy - Energy is the capacity to do work Major loss in Ducts, Tubes and Pipes - Major loss - head loss or pressure loss - due to friction in ducts, pipes and tubes Bernoulli Equation - Conservation of energy - non-viscous, incompressible fluid in steady flow Pitot Tubes - Pitot tubes can be used to indicate fluid flow velocities by measuring the difference between the static and the dynamic pressures in fluids U-Tube Manometer - The inclined and vertical u-tube manometers are inexpensive and common in the differential pressure measurement with flow meters like pitot tubes, orifices and nozzles Pressure Gradient Diagrams - A pressure gradient diagram is a graphical presentation of the static pressure throughout a fluid flow system .. - "Search is the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox!" . The hydraulic grade and the energy line are graphical presentations of the Bernoulli equation . The total head in a flow can be determined by measuring the stagnation pressure using a pitot tube. Involves velocity, pressure, density and temperature as functions of space and time .

 

Sponsored Links . The Head By dividing each term with the specific weight - γ = ρ g - equation (1) can be transformed to express the "head": p / γ v2 / 2 g h = constant along a streamline = H (2) where H = the total head (m) Each term of this equation has the dimension length - m orft in Imperial units. The Piezometric Head The sum of pressure head - p / γ - and elevation head - h - is called the piezometric head. Related Topics . Sponsored Links . Fluid Mechanics - The study of fluids - liquids and gases. In a practical world the energy line decreases along the flow due to losses. The Hydraulic Grade Line The Hydraulic Grade Line is a line representing the total head available to the fluid - minus the velocity head and can be expressed as: HGL = p / γ h (4) where HGL = Hydraulic Grade Line (m) The hydraulic grade line lies one velocity head below the the energy line. A turbine in the flow reduces the energy line and a pump or fan in the line increases the energy line.

 

Related Documents . The piezometric head in a flow can be measured through an flat opening parallel to the flow. The Total Head (2) states that the sum of pressure head - p / γ velocity head - v2 / 2 g elevation head - h is constant along a stream line. The Energy Line The Energy Line is a line that represent the total head available to the fluid and can be expressed as: EL = H = p / γ v2 / 2 g h = constant along a streamline (3) where EL = Energy Line (m) For a fluid flow without any losses due to friction (major losses) or components (minor losses) - the energy line would be at a constant level. Energy and Hydraulic Grade Line . The Bernoulli Equation For steady, inviscid (having zero viscosity), incompressible flow the total energy remains constant along a stream line as expressed through the Bernoulli Equation: p 1/2 ρ v2 γ h = constant along a streamline (1) where p = static pressure (relative to the moving fluid) (Pa, N/m2) ρ = density (kg/m3) γ = specific weight (N/m3) v = flow velocity (m/s) g = acceleration of gravity (9.81 m/s2) h = elevation height (m) Each term of this equation has the dimension force per unit area - N/m2 or psi, lb/ft2 in Imperial units.

 

This constant can be called the total head - H. Sponsored Links 55be9034d4

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